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Mykola Zharkikh (Kyiv)

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Dmitri Tuptalo (1695)

Nicholas Zharkikh

Abstract of the chapter

Detailed argumentation in ukrainian version

The third version of Kyiv legend was established by Pechersk monk Dmitri Tuptalo (1651 – 1709, the future Metropolitan of Rostov) during his work on the "Great Lives of the Saints". Materials about st. Barbara that interest us, are contained in the 4th of December (in the second volume of the first edition, published in 1695).

Dmitri under this day bestowed two articles: and "".

The first article contains the usual life of st. Barbara, basic information which we discussed above. The article ends with the burial of the martyr.

We are most interested in the second article. Its structure is following:

- the origin of the relics (Tuptalo's original text);

- confirm the truth of the relics (G.Osolinsky's evidence – after Sofonovych; evidence of Patriarch Macarius is not used);

- wonders of the relics (after Sofonovych);

- the history of st. Barbara's left hand.

The first part of the article we actually interested to read as follows:

[1] – [4] – are presented and commented on in the Ukrainian text.

[4] Kyivan Prince Michael Svjatopolk, son of Izyaslav, grandson of Yaroslav, and great-grandson of St. Vladimir, had the first wife Greek girl, a daughter of Alexis Comnenus, the Greek king, named Barbara. When she went from Constantinople in the Ruthenian lands, asked his father to give her honest relics of St. Barbara, and took them brought to Kyiv city.

[5] – [7] – are presented and commented on in the Ukrainian text.

We see that Dmitri Tuptalo picked Sofonovych's falsification initiative and developed it due to historical information, which have no direct relation to the relics, and idle pious considerations of his own production.

4. This fragment – a key to the whole legend – is Tuptalo's own imagination. Taking from the 2nd edition of legends Svjatopolk's name he "enriched" statement, Tuptalo invented his marriage with Princess Barbara – daughter of Emperor Alexius Comnenus. This was an "improvement" of second version of the legend, in which the act of emperor was not motivated. Calling Barbara first Svjatopolk's wife, author probably wanted to reconcile this fiction message with chronicle note about Svjatopolk's marriage with the Tugorkan's daughter (after this theory she would be the second wife). Later fantasists, creatively developing Tuptalo's imagination, made princess a second, then third wife, of which we shall speak in the next chapter.

In describing the subsequent history of the relics and miracles from them Tuptalo followed Sofonovych's "Story", but strangely confused in chronology. Yes, Sofonovych properly dated Radziwill's attack on Kyiv – 1651 year, and the miracle of the preservation of the relics in the fire – 1657 year, instead of these Tuptalo first event dated in 1608 year, and the second – in 1617. In Sofonovych appointing him abbot of the monastery of St. Michael was dated in 1655 year and in Tuptalo – 1685 year. Tuptalo not even pay attention to the fact that in his presentation Sylvester Kosov was Metropolitan of Kyiv in 1608, and in 1685, respectively.

There was no date of the visit of Patriarch Macarius in Sofonovych, but it was not difficult to calculate it, knowing that it happened by Abbot Sofonovych (so – after 1655) and Metropolitan Kosov (hence – before 1657). Instead Tuptalo writed that it was in 1616 (again with the same "eternal" Kosov)! Such ability of historian were showed by Dmitri Tuptalo.